Stingy Investor Search - Contact - Subscribe - Login
  Home | Articles | Links | SNW
Hunting Goodwill

Watered stock is an old fashioned term that describes shares of companies with drastically overvalued assets. Reportedly, the term originates with the practice of ranchers feeding their cattle large amounts of water before going to market where the water-induced weight would fetch a higher price. Naturally, the buyer is not happy with this process. The crafty promoter can't take a stock to the pond for a fill up, but there are a variety of ways to mark up assets. A potential source of asset inflation is goodwill, which can be uncovered by investors who are willing to do a little work.

Goodwill arises when one firm purchases another and pays more than the fair market value of the acquired firm's net assets. For example, consider an investor who owns a small fraction of CashCo. CashCo has $100 in the bank and no other assets or liabilities. Keeping in mind that the firm's book value is equal to its assets less liabilities, one can see that CashCo's book value is equal to $100. Putting a value on CashCo is, at first glance, simple. CashCo should be worth $100. After all, should CashCo trade for $90 then a savvy investor would buy CashCo, and keep the $100 for a quick profit of $10. Now, let's consider MixedCo, which specializes in the salty snack business. MixedCo has a variety of assets with a fair value of $100, liabilities of $50, and a book value of $50. Suppose that CashCo's management thinks that MixedCo has good prospects and buys the firm for $100. After the purchase, CashCo has spent $100, but they now have $100 of assets and $50 of liabilities. We are now faced with a problem. After the purchase, CashCo's assets less liabilities, or book value, comes to only $50 whereas before the transaction it was $100. CashCo paid twice book for MixedCo, so perhaps we should just reduce CashCo's book value to $50. Merger specialists and acquisitive managers wouldn't much like an immediate reduction in book value and generally prefer the current accounting convention. Here's where goodwill makes its entrance. Goodwill is the excess amount that CashCo paid over the fair market value of MixedCo's net assets. In this example, a total of $50 of goodwill would be created. After buying MixedCo, CashCo would have assets of $100 plus goodwill of $50, liabilities of $50, and a book value of $100. Goodwill is supposed to represent the intangible qualities of MixedCo such as a good brand name or a loyal customer base. Mind you, it could be that CashCo simply overpaid, which is all too often the case in practice.

The purchase of MixedCo puts the CashCo investor in a tricky spot. They used to know, with a good deal of certainty, that CashCo was worth $100. However, they now have to figure out how much CashCo's $50 of goodwill is actually worth. Did management simply overpay or is there some lasting value to the MixedCo brand? If MixedCo has a good brand name, or some other competitive advantage, then one should be willing to pay a bit more for it. However, the amount that an investor should pay may differ from that paid by CashCo's management.

Goodwill is an intangible asset, which is a fitting classification due to its ephemeral nature. Other intangible assets include patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property. In many cases these assets are very difficult to price. As a result, it is quite common to consider a stock's tangible book value which is equal to its book value less goodwill and other intangible assets. For instance, after the MixedCo acquisition, CashCo would have a book value of $100 and a tangible book value of $50. Tangible book value allows investors to more directly come to their own conclusions about the current value of a company's intangible assets.

In practice, tangible book value is very handy in uncovering potential cases of watered stock. Many value investors like to look for stocks with low price to book value ratios. With this in mind, I visited on the fourth of June and sorted the forty stocks in the Dow Jones Canada Titans 40 index by price to book value. Eleven of the stocks had price to book value ratios of less than 1.6, which would usually be considered to represent good value (see Table 1).

Table 1: Low P/BV stocks in the DJCT40
Name SymbolPrice/Book
Celestica CLS 0.75
Inco N 0.93
Alcan AL 1.13
Telus T 1.15
Sun Life Financial SLF 1.18
Abitibi-Consolidated AL 1.34
Brascan BNN.A 1.39
Potash Corp POT 1.42
CP Rail CP 1.49
Canadian Natural Resources CNQ 1.52
Ballard Power BLD 1.58
Source:, June 4 2003

Many investors stop at this point but they imperil their savings by ignoring goodwill. The big problem with goodwill is that it often represents overpaying for other companies. Eventually such profligate behavior is revealed and the excess goodwill is written down. Consider the recent high profile, and record breaking, write-downs at AOL which totaled $99.7 billion. Now that's a loss that you don't see everyday, and it eclipsed JDS Uniphase's second-place wipeout of $56.1 billion in 2001. Mind you, these firms weren't alone in overpaying for questionable assets during the internet boom.

With these examples in mind, it seems well worth the extra effort to examine goodwill for the generally more conservative companies found via my low price to book value search. To find goodwill (and other intangible assets), I obtained each firm's annual report at Goodwill is usually listed on a company's balance sheet, but it is sometimes lumped in with other assets and revealed in the financial statement footnotes. I then determined what percentage of total shareholder equity was composed of goodwill (and other intangible assets). The price to tangible book value ratio can then be found by dividing the price to book value ratio by one minus goodwill (in decimal form). Table 2 is sorted by price to tangible book value and it is obvious that discounting goodwill makes a big difference. Three of the firms have price to tangible book values of more than two, which would make them less attractive. Mind you, many of the others remain relatively unchanged.

Table 2: Low P/TBV stocks in the DJCT40
NameSymbolP/BGoodwill (%)P/TB
Inco N 0.93 0.0% 0.93
CelesticaCLS 0.75 27.6% 1.04
Telus T 1.15 10.8% 1.29
Brascan BNN.A 1.39 4.1% 1.45
Potash CorpPOT 1.42 4.6% 1.49
CP Rail CP 1.49 0.0% 1.49
Canadian Natural ResourcesCNQ 1.52 0.0% 1.52
Alcan AL 1.13 31.2% 1.64
Sun Life FinancialSLF 1.18 44.8% 2.14
Ballard PowerBLD 1.58 43.2% 2.78
Abitibi-ConsolidatedAL 1.34 62.4% 3.57
Source: June 4 2003 &

Goodwill is not the only thing that leads to misleading book values. Because book value typically contains a variety of current and historical data, it can be very difficult to get an accurate book value. For instance, many companies own land which is carried on the books at cost. If the land in question is in downtown Toronto and it was purchased many years ago then it is quite likely to be worth more today and represents a hidden bonus for equity holders. On the other hand, some machinery may have been made obsolete more quickly than expected due to technological change and is now worth less than indicated on the balance sheet. Similarly, firms with claims to natural resources may have incorrectly estimated the value of these resources. Shareholder equity is also complicated by the existence of preferred shares and per share amounts are plagued by stock options.

Given the potential pitfalls associated with book values, why is it used by investors? Perhaps the simplest reason is because it has worked. Generally speaking, low price to book value stocks have outperformed their high price to book value compatriots over the years. Book value also provides a good second check on stock prices determined by more traditional earnings or cash flow valuation techniques. It is always useful to check for excessive water before buying based on book values.

First published in July 2003.

Globe & Mail Articles

 Dividend All-Stars for 2024
 250 Megastars for 2024
 Extreme yields
 The easy way
 Smaller stable dividend
 250 Megastars for 2023
 Champagne portfolio
 Screaming Value
 Blended momentum
 Dividend monster
 Frugal dividend
 Stable dividend
 Speads and recessions
 TSX 60 for value investors
 Looking at 10-year returns
 Watching for a bottom
 Oh, bother!
 Indexing advice
 Media-shy stocks
 Curse of size
 Market uncertainty
 Be even lazier
 Scary beats safe
 Small, illiquid, value
 Use the numbers
 What value is good value?
 Sculpt for value
 Value vs CAPE
 Graham Rules
 CAPE vs PeakE
 Top value ratio
 Low Beta
 Value and dividends
 Walter Schloss
 Try unloved AIG
 Why I'm a value investor
 New world of ETFs
 Low P/Es possible
 10 yielders
 Be happier
 Dividend Downside
 Shiller's P/E
 Copycat investing
 Cashing in on class
 Index roulette
 Theory collides
 Diving too deep
 3 retirement villains
 Scourge of inflation
 Economic omens
 Analyst Expectations
 Value stock scarcity
 It's all in the index
 How to pick good funds
 Low Beta Wins
 Hunt for dividend stocks
 Think garage sale

MoneySaver Articles
 2 Graham Stocks for 2018
 2 Stingy Stocks for 2017
 2 Graham Stocks for 2017
 3 Stingy Stocks for 2016
 5 Graham Stocks for 2016
 3 Stingy Stocks for 2015
 3 Graham Stocks for 2015
 3 Stingy Stocks for 2014
 4 Graham Stocks for 2014
 8 Stingy Stocks for 2013
 6 Graham Stocks for 2013
 9 Stingy Stocks for 2012
 8 Graham Stocks for 2012
 Simple Way 2011
 5 Stingy Stocks for 2011
 7 Graham Stocks for 2011
 Simple Way 2010
 5 Stingy Stocks for 2010
 8 Graham Stocks for 2010
 Simple Way 2009
 Timing Temptation
 19 Stingy Stocks for 2009
 4 Graham Stocks for 2009
 Simple Way 2008
 Active at Passive Prices
 Unbundling ETFs 2008
 5 Stingy Stocks for 2008
 5 Graham Stocks for 2008
 Is your index too active?
 Graham's Simple Way
 Canadian Graham Stocks
 5 Stingy Stocks for 2007
 8 Graham Stocks for 2007
 Top SPPs
 The Simple Way
 A hole in your IPO?
 Monkey Business
 8 Stingy Stocks for 2006
 Graham Stock Gainers
 Blue-Chip Blues
 Are Dividends Safe?
 SPPs for 2005
 Graham's Simplest Way
 Selling Graham Stocks
 RRSP Money Market Funds
 Stingy Stocks for 2005
 High Performance Graham
 Intelligent Indexing
 Unbundling Canadian ETFs
 A history of yield
 A Dynamic Duo
 Canadian Graham Stock
 Dividends at Risk
 Thrifty Value Stocks
 Stocks in Short Supply
 The New Dividend
 Hunting Goodwill
 SPPs for 2003
 RRSP: don't panic
 Desirable Dividends
 Stingy Selections 2003
 10 Graham Picks
 Growth Eh?
 Timing Disaster
 Dangerous Diversification
 The Coffee Can Portfolio
 Down with the dogs
 Stingy Selections
 Frugal Funds
 Graham Revisited
 Just Spend It
 Ticker Temptation
 Stock Mortality
 Focus on Fees
 SPPs for the Long Term
 Seeking Solid Stocks
 Relative Strength
 The VR Approach
 The Irrational Investor
 Value Investing

Old MS Articles
 Cdn Top 200 2018
 Cdn Top 200 2017
 Cdn Top 200 2016
 Cdn Top 200 2015
 Cdn Top 200 2014
 Cdn Top 200 2013
 Cdn Top 200 2012
 Cdn Top 200 2011
 Cdn Top 200 2010
 Cdn Top 200 2009
 Cdn Top 200 2008
 Cdn Top 200 2007
 Cdn Top 200 2006
 Cdn Top 200 2005
 US Top 500 2018
 US Top 500 2017
 US Top 500 2016
 US Top 500 2015
 US Top 500 2014
 US Top 500 2013
 US Top 500 2012
 US Top 500 2011
 US Top 500 2010
 US Top 500 2009
 US Top 500 2008
 US Top 500 2007
 US Top 1000 2006
 Dividends 100 2017
 Dividends 100 2016
 Retirement 100 2015
 Retirement 100 2014
 Retirement 100 2013
 Retirement 100 2012
 Retirement 100 2011
 Retirement 100 2010
 Income 100 2009
 Income 100 2008
 Income 100 2007
 Top Trusts 2006
 Top Trusts 2005
 Hot Potato
 Buffett Buys
 Stocks that pay
 Value in the S&P500
 Where to invest $100k
 Where to invest $10k
 Summer Simple Way
 A crystal ball for stocks?
 Cheap & safe
 Risky business
 Dividend investing
 Value investing
 Momentum investing
 Low P/E P/B
 Dividend growers
 Graham's prescription
 The case for optimism
 Wicked investments
 Simply spectacular
 Small stocks, big profits
 Value that sizzles
 So simple it works
 No assembly required
 Investing by the book
 Invest like the masters
 A simple way to get rich
 Stocks for cannibals
 Car bites dogs
 So easy, so profitable
 Dogs of the Dow
 Money for nothing
 Yield of dreams
 Return of the master

Advisor's Edge Articles
 Passive Rebundling
 Doing the math

Flip Books

About Us | Legal | Contact Us
Disclaimers: Consult with a qualified investment adviser before trading. Past performance is a poor indicator of future performance. The information on this site, and in its related newsletters, is not intended to be, nor does it constitute, financial advice or recommendations. The information on this site is in no way guaranteed for completeness, accuracy or in any other way. More...